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Chemistry 401


Chapter - 1. Organometallic Compounds

·       Introduction

·       Classification af Organometallic Compounds

·       Organo Lithium Compounds: Preparation of Organo lithium 

·       Properties of Organolithium Compounds

·       Zeise salts & its preparation

·       Structure of Trimethyl Aluminium (Dimer)

·       Structure of Ferrocene



Chapter - 2. Bioinorganic Chemistry

·       Introduction

·       Metalloporphyrins 

·       Structure and role of Haemoglobin and Myoglobin in biological system 

·       Structure of chlorophyll and its importance

·       Toxicity elements 

·       Reason for toxicity of the following elements 




Chapter - 3. Noble Gases 

·       Introduction and occurance

·       Compounds of inert gases 

(1) He and Ne compounds

(2) Ar and Kr compounds 

(3) Xenon (Xe) compounds

(4) Radon (Rn) compounds 

·       Preparation, structure (VBT) and properties of some compounds of Xenon 

(1) XeF2

(2) XeF4

(3) XeF6

(4) XeO4

(5) XeO2F2

(6) XeOF2

(7) KrF2

·       Oxide of Xenon 

·       Uses of Noble Gases




Chapter - 4. Active Methyl Compounds

·       Introduction 

·       Keto-enol Tautomerism in Ethyl aceto acetate 

·       Preparation of Ethyl aceto acetate[Claisen condensation with reaction mechanism]

·       Chemical reactions of Ethyl acetoacetate 

(i) Reduction 

(ii) Hydrolysis 

(iii) Reaction with bromine 

(iv) Formation of sodium salt 

(v) Reaction with alkyl halide 

(vi) Addition and Condensation reaction of the Ketonic >C=O groups 

(vii) Reaction with aldehydes 

·       Synthesis from Ethyl acetoacetate

(i) Butyric acid 

(ii) Valerie acid 

(iii) 2-Pentanone

(iv) 3-Methyl-2-Pentanone 

(v) Adipic acid 

(vi) Acetyl acetone (Pentane-2,4-dione)

(vii) Acetonyl acetone (hexane 2,5-dione)

(viii) Lavulinie acid (4-Keto Pentanoic acid) 






Chapter - 5. Carbonyl Compounds (Aldehydes and Ketones) 

·       Structure

·       Preparation of Aldehyde and Ketones 

(A) From acid chlorides to prepare aldehydes

(B) Preparation of Ketones 

(C) From Nitriles 

·       Preparation of aldehydes from nitriles

·       Nucleophilic Additions reactions 

(i) With HCN 

(ii) With R-OH

(iii) With NaHSO3

·       Nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions 

(A) With Ammonia 

(B) Reaction with Ammonia derivatives 

(i) Reaction with Hydroxylamine 

(ii) Reaction with Hydrazine 

(iii) Reaction with Phenyl hydrazine 

(iv) Reaction with 2,4-Dinitro Phenyl hydrazine

(v) Reaction with Semi Carbazide

·       Oxidations 

(i) Oxidation of Aldehydes 

(ii) Oxidation of ketones

·       Reductions

(i) Clemmensen reduction 

(ii) Wolf-Kishner: Reduction

(iii) Reduction with LiAlH4

(iv) Reduction with NaBH4




Chapter-6. Carboxylic acids and their Derivatives 

·       Acidity of Carboxylic acids

·       Effect of Substitution on acidity of Carboxylic.acids

·       Preparation of Mono Carboxylic acids 

·       Reactions of Mono Carboxylic acids 

(a) Salt formation

(b) Decarboxylation

(c) Halogenation

·       Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky (or HVZ) Reaction 

·       Preparation of Carboxylic acid derivatives

(a) Acid chlorides

(b) Anhydrides

(c) Amides

·       Inter conversions

(a) Conversion to acids

(b) Conversion to esters 

(c) Conversion to amides 

(d) Reduction 

(e) Formation of Aldehydes

(f) Reaction with organometallic reagents 

(g) Formation of ketones 

·       Reaction of acid anhydrides 

(a) Reaction with nucleophiles

(b) Conversion to esters

(c) Conversion to amides

(d) Reaction with H2S

(e) Reduction

(f) Formation of ketones 

·       Reaction of esters

·       Mechanism of Estarification

·       Hydrolysis of an Esters : (BAC^2 mechanism) 





Chapter - 7 . Name Reaction and Rearrangements

·       Aldol Condensation 

·       Perkin Reaction 

·       Witting reaction 

·       Beckmann Rearrangement 

·       Benzil-Benzilic acid Rearrangement 

·       Hofmann bromamide degradation 



Chapter - 8. Basic of some physical properties

·       Introduction 

·       Physical properties

·       Molar volume 

·       Surface tension

·       Parachor 

·       Viscocity

·       Refractive index & refractivity 

·       Optical activity 

·       Dipole moment





Chapter - 9.  Thermodynamics  

·       Introduction

·       Importance and advantage of Thermodynamics 

·       Terminology of thermodynamics and types of system 

·       State of system & State variables

·       Properties of system : Macroscopic system & Macroscopic properties

·       Types of processes

·       State and& path functions 

·       Exact & Inexact differential concept of Heat, work and& Internal energy

·       First law of thermodynamics

·       Prepetual motion machine of first kind

·       Heat absorbed at constant volume 

·       Heat capacity

·       Isothermal Reversible & Irreversible work of idealgas

·       Prove that Wrev > Wirr

·       Relations between P - V, V - T and T - P for Adiabatic process, Adiabatic Reversible and irreversible work of ideal gas

·       Areabatic reversible and irreversible work of ideal gas

·       Joule Thomson Effect

·       Zeroth law of thermodynamics

·       Variation of enthalpy with temperature

·       Flame and explosion temperature